For medical genetic counseling, estimating the chance of a child being born with chromosome abnormality is crucially important. Cytogenetic diagnostics of parents with a balanced karyotype are a special case. Such chromosome rearrangements cannot be detected with comprehensive chromosome screening. In the current paper, we consider chromosome diagnostics in two cases of chromosome rearrangement in patients with balanced karyotype and provide the results of a detailed analysis of complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) involving three chromosomes and a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) in a patient with impaired reproductive function. The application of fluorescent in situ hybridization, microdissection, and multicolor banding allows for describing analyzed karyotypes in detail. In the case of a CCR, such as the one described here, the probability of gamete formation with a karyotype, showing a balance of chromosome regions, is extremely low. Recommendation for the family in genetic counseling should take into account the obtained result. In the case of an sSMC, it is critically important to identify the original chromosome from which the sSMC has been derived, even if the euchromatin material is absent. Finally, we present our view on the optimal strategy of identifying and describing sSMCs, namely the production of a microdissectional DNA probe from the sSMC combined with a consequent reverse painting.