We have recently shown a diminishing of the Menopause Index in old-aged women who underwent special training directed at the enhancement of support afferentation by increasing the plantar forefoot sensitivity (Bazanova et al., 2015). Based on these results we hypothesized, that purposeful training of support afferentation through stimulation of plantar graviceptors by Aikido practice will decrease excessive postural and psychoemotional tension not only in rest condition, but during cognitive and manual task performance too. Fluency of cognitive and motor task performance, EEG alpha power as an index of neuronal efficiency of cognitive control, amount of alpha power suppression as a visual activation measure and EMG power of forehead muscles as a sign of psychoemotional tension were compared in three groups of post-menopausal women: i) 8 years training with forefeet support afferentation with Aikido practice (A), ii) 8 years fitness training (F) and iii) no dedicated fitness training for past 8 years (N). Simultaneous stabilometry, EEG, and frontal EMG recording were performed in sitting and standing up position in eyes closed and eyes open condition. Recording done at rest and while performing cognitive and finger motor tasks. We compared studied parameters between groups with one- and two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, followed by post hoc two-tailed unpaired t-tests. The fluency of tasks performance, EMG and alpha-EEG-activity displayed similar values in all groups in a sitting position. Center of pressure (CoP) sway length, velocity and energy demands for saving balance increased when standing up, more in group N than in groups F and A (all contrasts p values < 0.002, η2 > 0.89). Post hoc t-tests showed increased fluency in standing in both Aikido (p < 0.01) and Fitness (p < 0.05) subjects in relation to untrained subjects. Increasing fluency in motor task performance was in parallel with enhancing the EEG alpha-2-power and decreasing EMG power only in A group (η2 > 0.77). Fluency in motor task and alpha EEG power decreased, but frontal EMG power increased in response to standing in untrained women (group N) and did not change in F group. Post hoc t-tests showed that EEG amount of alpha-2 power suppression in response to visual activation and frontal EMG power was lower in A than F and N groups (p < 0.004) during motor task performance in the standing position. These results were interpreted as showing that training of forefoot plantar surface sensitivity in postmenopausal women decreases levels of psychoemotional tension and increases cognitive control caused by the psychomotor and postural challenges. Thus, Aikido training aimed at learning coordination between manual task performance and balance control by increasing the plantar support zones sensation decreases the cost of maintained vertical position and dependence of motor coordination on visual contribution.
Предметные области OECD FOS+WOS
- 5.01.BV ПСИХОЛОГИЯ, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ
- 3.01.RU НЕЙРОБИОЛОГИЯ
- 3.01.UM ФИЗИОЛОГИЯ
- 5.01.VX ПСИХОЛОГИЯ, ЭКСПЕРИМЕНТАЛЬНАЯ