The effect of the features of starting zirconium compounds on the solvothermal synthesis of mixed Ce–Zr oxides in a flow reactor using ethanol and isopropanol as a supercritical medium was studied. The phase composition and structural properties of the synthesized samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The morphology and textural properties were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermal desorption of nitrogen. It was found that the use of zirconium oxychloride or acetate as the starting substances results in the formation of a mixture of phases enriched with cerium or zirconium, whereas the use of zirconium butoxide with acetylacetone as a complexing agent allows obtaining a homogeneous solid solution. The catalytic properties of the synthesized oxides with supported Ni were tested in methane dry reforming (MDR). The catalyst containing a single-phase oxide synthesized in the presence of acetylacetone exhibited much higher activity, selectivity and coking stability.