Objectives: Variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms of DRD4 and DAT genes were studied in the Russian and Chechen men convicted of crimes, and two control groups comprised of the MMA fighters and a sample of general population. A group of MMA fighters included only the subjects without history of antisocial behaviour. Methods: DNA was isolated by phenol–chloroform extraction from the blood. Genotyping VNTR polymorphisms of the DRD4 and DAT genes were performed by PCR on published methods. Results: Among those convicted of felonies and most grave crimes, carriers of DRD4 long alleles are found more frequently, similarly to the cohort of MMA fighters (lacking criminal record in both paternal lines). The 9/9 DAT genotype carriers are more frequently encountered among the habitual offenders. A frequency of the combination of the DRD4 genotype 4/7 and DAT genotype 10/10 is clearly higher among the convicts of violent crimes and the MMA fighters. One can speculate the presence of a ‘controlled aggression’ without a predisposition to pathological violence in the MMA fighters. Conclusions: Our study supports the hypothesis of genetic predisposition to different variants of extreme behaviour mediated by genetic determinants involved in the functioning of neuromediator systems including those controlling dopamine pathways.