Parasitic food-borne diseases and chronic social stress are frequent attributes of day-to-day human life. Therefore, our aim was to model the combined action of chronic Opisthorchis felineus infection and repeated social defeat stress in C57BL/6 mice. Histological examination of the liver revealed inflammation sites, pronounced periductal fibrosis, and cholangiofibrosis together with proliferation of bile ducts and hepatocyte dystrophy in the infected mice, especially in the stress-exposed ones. Simultaneously with liver pathology, we detected significant structural changes in the cerebral cortex. Immunohistochemical analysis of the hippocampus indicated the highest increase in numerical density of Iba 1-, IL-6-, iNOS-, and Arg1-positive cells in mice simultaneously subjected to the two adverse factors. The number of GFAP-positive cells rose during repeated social defeat stress, most strongly in the mice subjected to both infection and stress. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of genes Aif1 and Il6 differed among the analysed brain regions (hippocampus, hypothalamus, and frontal cortex) and depended on the adverse factors applied. In addition, among the brain regions, there was no consistent increase or decrease in these parameters when the two adverse treatments were combined: (i) in the hippocampus, there was upregulation of Aif1 and no change in Il6 expression; (ii) in the hypothalamus, expression levels of Aif1 and Il6 were not different from controls; and (iii) in the frontal cortex, Aif1 expression did not change while Il6 expression increased. It can be concluded that a combination of two long-lasting adverse factors, O. felineus infection and repeated social defeat stress, worsens not only the hepatic but also brain state, as evidenced behaviorally by disturbances of the startle response in mice.