Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) is a multifunctional cellular factor overexpressed in tumors resistant to chemotherapy. An intrinsically disordered structure together with a high positive charge peculiar to YB-1 allows this protein to function in almost all cellular events related to nucleic acids including RNA, DNA and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). In the present study we show that YB-1 acts as a potent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) cofactor that can reduce the efficiency of PARP1 inhibitors. Similarly to that of histones or polyamines, stimulatory effect of YB-1 on the activity of PARP1 was significantly higher than the activator potential of Mg2+ and was independent of the presence of EDTA. The C-terminal domain of YB-1 proved to be indispensable for PARP1 stimulation. We also found that functional interactions of YB-1 and PARP1 can be mediated and regulated by poly(ADP-ribose).