The paper presents measurements of the longitudinal broadband impedance and beam energy spread of the beam at the VEPP-4M electron-positron collider in an energy range of 1.0 - 3.5 GeV. In order to measure the longitudinal bunch size at various beam currents we used “PS-1/S1” streak camera with picosecond temporal resolution. The dependence of bunch length from the bunch current at different energies demonstrates a microwave instability threshold. The bunch lengthening was caused by potential well distortion as well. Potential well distortion lengthening was used to estimate a value of the reactive part of the longitudinal impedance of the vacuum chamber of the collider. Observed microwave instability thresholds was used to measure the value of the broadband impedance. The impact of the Touschek effect in the beam energy spread is discussed.