The fungal pathogen Cochliobolus sativus Drechs. Ex Dastur, anamorph Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoemaker is one of the most common barley pathogens worldwide and causes spot blotch and root rot in barley. Spot blotch is considered to be the major biotic stress hampering the commercial production of barley. During high disease severity, which occurs in the northwestern region of Russia once every three to four years, yield losses for barley may reach 40%. An increase in common root rot severity results in yield losses that can reach 80%. The goal of the current study was to identify significant markers that can be employed as diagnostic DNA markers to breed C. sativus pathogen‐resistant varieties of barley. In 94 spring barley cultivars and lines, the resistance of seedlings and adult plants to the impact of C. sativus on their leaves and roots was investigated. Five genomic regions associated with resistance to Spot blotch were identified (on chromosome 1H (50–61.2 cM), 2H (68.7–69.68 cM), 3H (18.72–26.18 cM), 7H (7.52–15.44 cM)). No significant loci were determined to be associated with root rot. According to obtained data, 11 significant SNPs were converted into KASP markers and 6 markers located on chromosome 3H were determined to possess good accuracy and the potential to be employed in marker‐assisted selection.