MiRNAs of blood and urine have been shown to represent a convenient source of biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and assessment of the therapy effectiveness due to their high stability and representation and the low invasiveness of sample collection. Here, we studied the influence of radical prostatectomy (RP) on the expression of 12 cell-free miRNAs previously shown as potential markers of PCa (i.e., miR-19b, miR-22, miR-92a, miR-378, miR-425, miR-30e, miR-31, miR-125b, miR-200b, miR-205, miR-375 and miR-660). The relative expression of the miRNAs combined into 31 paired ratios was evaluated in the urine extracellular vesicles (EVs), clarified urine (CU) and blood plasma of healthy donors, pre- and post-RP samples of PCa patients. Nineteen miRNA ratios based on combinations of ten of the miRNAs (miR-19b, miR-30e, miR-31, miR-125b, miR-200b, miR-205, miR-375, miR-378, miR-425, and miR-660) were altered by RP. The comparative expression analysis of the cell-free miRNA ratios between healthy donors and PCa patients revealed miR-125b/miR-30e and miR-375/miR-30e as potential markers for evaluating therapeutic efficacy. MiR-378/miR-19b, miR-425/miR-19b, miR-200/miR-30e, miR-660/miR-30e, and miR-205/miR-30e had minor prognostic value but could be used to increase the steadiness of the diagnostic system. The urine EVs had the highest potential as a source of markers.