The regulation of repair processes including base excision repair (BER) in the presence of DNA damage is implemented by a cellular signal: poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), which is catalysed by PARP1 and PARP2. Despite ample studies, it is far from clear how BER is regulated by PARPs and how the roles are distributed between the PARPs. Here, we investigated the effects of PARP1, PARP2 and PARylation on activities of the main BER enzymes (APE1, DNA polymerase β [Polβ] and DNA ligase IIIα [LigIIIα]) in combination with BER scaffold protein XRCC1 in the nucleosomal context. We constructed nucleosome core particles with midward- or outward-oriented damage. It was concluded that in most cases, the presence of PARP1 leads to the suppression of the activities of APE1, Polβ and to a lesser extent LigIIIα. PARylation by PARP1 attenuated this effect to various degrees depending on the enzyme. PARP2 had an influence predominantly on the last stage of BER: DNA sealing. Nonetheless, PARylation by PARP2 led to Polβ inhibition and to significant stimulation of LigIIIα activities in a NAD+-dependent manner. On the basis of the obtained and literature data, we suggest a hypothetical model of the contribution of PARP1 and PARP2 to BER.