The Challenges of Vaccine Development against Betacoronaviruses: Antibody Dependent Enhancement and Sendai Virus as a Possible Vaccine Vector

T. A. Zaichuk, Y. D. Nechipurenko, A. A. Adzhubey, S. B. Onikienko, V. A. Chereshnev, S. S. Zainutdinov, G. V. Kochneva, S. V. Netesov, O. V. Matveeva

Результат исследования: Научные публикации в периодических изданияхобзорная статья

Аннотация

To design an effective and safe vaccine against betacoronaviruses, it is necessary to use their evolutionarily conservative antigenic determinants that will elicit the combination of strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Targeting such determinants minimizes the risk of antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection. This phenomenon was observed in animal trials of experimental vaccines against SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV that were developed based on inactivated coronavirus or vector constructs expressing the spike protein (S) of the virion. The substitution and glycosylation of certain amino acids in the antigenic determinants of the S-protein, as well as its conformational changes, can lead to the same effect in a new experimental vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Using more conservative structural and accessory viral proteins for the vaccine antigenic determinants will help to avoid this problem. This review outlines approaches for developing vaccines against the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus that are based on non-pathogenic viral vectors. For efficient prevention of infections caused by respiratory pathogens the ability of the vaccine to stimulate mucosal immunity in the respiratory tract is important. Such a vaccine can be developed using non-pathogenic Sendai virus vector, since it can be administered intranasally and induce a mucosal immune response that strengthens the antiviral barrier in the respiratory tract and provides reliable protection against infection.

Язык оригиналаанглийский
Страницы (с-по)1-15
Число страниц15
ЖурналMolecular Biology
DOI
СостояниеОпубликовано - 4 сен 2020

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