The aim was to investigate behavioral reactions and event-related potential (ERP) responses in healthy participants under conditions of personalized attribution of emotional appraisal vocabulary to one-self or to other people. One hundred and fifty emotionally neutral, positive and negative words describing people’s traits were used. Subjects were asked to attribute each word to four types of people: one-self, loved, unpleasant and neutral person. The reaction time during adjectives attribution to one-self and a loved person was shorter than during adjectives attribution to neutral and unpleasant people. Self-related adjectives induced higher amplitudes of the N400 ERP peak in the medial cortical areas in comparison with adjectives related to other people. The amplitude of P300 and P600 depended on the emotional valence of assessments, but not on the personalized attribution. The interaction between the attribution effect and the effect of emotional valence of assessments was observed for the N400 peak in the left temporal area. The maximal amplitude of N400 was revealed under self-attributing of emotionally positive adjectives. Our results supported the hypothesis that the emotional valence of assessments and the processing of information about one-self or others were related to the brain processes that differ from each other in a cortical localization or time dynamics.