A single-phase micro-disperse Ni-Pd (5 wt.%) alloy prepared by coprecipitation technique was studied as a catalyst precursor for the synthesis of the nanostructured carbon product. Catalytic synthesis of N-doped carbon nanofibers was implemented by the joint decomposition of C2H4Cl2 and CH3CN vapors in H2 excess at 600 °C. The in situ kinetic experiments performed in a flow gravimetric setup with McBain balances showed that the carbon deposition process is characterized by an induction period (18−20 min). The intensive metal dusting of the Ni-Pd alloyed precursor in reaction conditions was found to lead to its complete disintegration. The obtained submicron-sized Ni-Pd particles were shown by XRD to have the same composition as the starting Ni-Pd (5%) precursor. The growth of carbon filaments accompanied the rapid disintegration of Ni-Pd alloy. The addition of acetonitrile vapors into the reaction mixture was found to enhance carbon yield from 24 (0%) to 40.5 (5 vol.%) and 50.9 (8 vol.%) grams per 1 g of catalyst for 2 h of reaction. Joint catalytic processing of C2H4Cl2 and CH3CN was shown to be sufficient for the production of carbon nanofibers doped with nitrogen. According to XPS and EDX data, the average amount of nitrogen within the obtained N-CNF was about 1.8 wt.%. It was revealed by microscopic studies (SEM, TEM) that the produced N-doped carbon filaments are characterized with a rather regular segmental structure similar to that observed for a reference sample of N-free CNF. The synthesized N-CNF samples are characterized by ID/IG ∼ 1.3 (Raman spectroscopy) and high textural parameters (SBET ∼ 390−450 m2/g, Vpore ∼ 0.6 cm3/g).