New data of petrography, mineralogy, and geochemistry from the Irtysh shear zone in Eastern Kazakhstan reveal three types of gabbro: (1) dolerite and gabbrodolerite, (2) biotite-bearing gabbronorite and gabbrodiorite, and (3) layered peridotite-gabbro intrusions. Rocks of types 1 and 2 occur mainly as small bodies and share similarity in major- and trace-element compositions. Layered gabbro (type 3) forms the largest intrusion in the area and has a different composition: higher CaO and Al2O3 but lower K2O, TiO2, P2O5, Zr, Nb, REE. Correspondingly, the gabbro of two first types may result from differentiation of the same tholeiite magma, whereas the layered gabbro rather derived from a magma intermediate between tholeiite and calc-alkaline series. According to geochemical and isotopic signatures, both types of primary magma originated from the same sublithospheric depleted mantle by low- and high-degree partial melting of spinel lherzolite. The obtained 317–313 Ma U-Pb and Ar-Ar ages of the gabbro fall within the time of collisional events in the area. The suggested model explains the origin of syncollisional gabbro as intrusion of ascending mafic melts from a mantle wedge at the transform boundary of colliding plates along the Irtysh shear zone where strike-slip faulting produced slab windows open to inputs of hot asthenospheric material.