This review presents precisely defined amphiphilic dendrons, their self-association properties, and their different uses. Dendrons, also named dendritic wedges, are composed of a core having two different types of functions, of which one type is used for growing or grafting branched arms, generally multiplied by 2 at each layer by using 1→2 branching motifs. A large diversity of structures has been already synthesized. In practically all cases, their synthesis is based on the synthesis of known dendrimers, such as poly(aryl ether), poly(amidoamine) (in particular PAMAM), poly(amide) (in particular poly(L-lysine)), 1→3 branching motifs (instead of 1→2), poly(alkyl ether) (poly(glycerol) and poly(ethylene glycol)), poly(ester), and those containing main group elements (poly(carbosilane) and poly(phosphorhydrazone)). In most cases, the hydrophilic functions are on the surface of the dendrons, whereas one or two hydrophobic tails are linked to the core. Depending on the structure of the dendrons, and on the experimental conditions used, the amphiphilic dendrons can self-associate at the air-water interface, or form micelles (eventually tubular, but most generally spherical), or form vesicles. These associated dendrons are suitable for the encapsulation of low-molecular or macromolecular bioactive entities to be delivered in cells. This review is organized depending on the nature of the internal structure of the amphiphilic dendrons (aryl ether, amidoamine, amide, quaternary carbon atom, alkyl ether, ester, main group element). The properties issued from their self-associations are described all along the review.
Предметные области OECD FOS+WOS
- 2.04 ХИМИЧЕСКИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ
- 1.04 ХИМИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ