The antioxidant system (AOS) maintains the optimal concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a cell and protects it against oxidative stress. In plants, the AOS consists of seven main classes of antioxidant enzymes, low-molecular antioxidants (e.g., ascorbate, glutathione, and their oxidized forms) and thioredoxin/glutaredoxin systems which can serve as reducing agents for antioxidant enzymes. The number of genes encoding AOS enzymes varies between classes, and same class enzymes encoded by different gene copies may have different subcellular localizations, functional loads and modes of evolution. These facts hereafter reinforce the complex nature of AOS regulation and functioning. Further studies can describe new trends in the behavior and functioning of systems components, and provide new fundamental knowledge about systems regulation. The system is revealed to have a lot of interactions and interplay pathways between its components at the subcellular level (antioxidants, enzymes, ROS level, and hormonal and transcriptional regulation). These facts should be taken into account in further studies during the AOS modeling by describing the main pathways of generating and utilizing ROS, as well as the associated signaling processes and regulation of the system on cellular and organelle levels, which is a complicated and ambitious task Another objective for studying the phenomenon of the AOS is related to the influence of cell dynamics and circadian rhythms on it. Therefore, the AOS requires an integrated and multi-level approach to study. We focused this review on the existing scientific background and experimental data used for the systems biology research of the plant AOS.