Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by thermal decomposition of methane at 900 °C using Co–Mo/MgO, Fe–Mo/MgO, and Ni–Mo/MgO catalysts. To obtain metallic nanoparticles, polyoxomolybdate clusters of Co, Ni, and Fe deposited on MgO were thermally decomposed at 700 °С, and the obtained oxides were heated in a carbon-containing atmosphere. The method of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) testified formation of one to ten walled CNTs with the average outer diameter depending on the catalyst used. Raman spectroscopy data confirmed the presence of single-walled CNTs in the samples obtained with Co–Mo/MgO and Fe–Mo/MgO catalysts. The electrochemical properties demonstrated by the obtained materials in supercapacitors are shown to be functions of their structural and compositional features.