Background: Plant cell metabolism inevitably forms reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage cells or lead to their death. The antioxidant system (AOS) evolved to eliminate a high concentration of ROS. For plants, this system consists of the seven classes of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant compounds. Each enzymatic class contains a various number of genes which may vary from species to species. In such a multi-copy genetic system, the integration of evolutionary characteristics and expression data makes it possible to effectively predict promising breeding targets for the design of highly-yielding cultivars. In the plant cells, ROS production can increase as a result of abiotic stresses. Accordingly, AOS responds to stress by altering the expression of the genes of its components. Expression profiles of AOS enzymes, including their changes under stress, remains incomplete. A comprehensive study of the system behavior in response to stress for different species gives the key to identify the general mechanisms of AOS regulation. In this article, we studied stress-induced changes in the expression of AOS genes in photosynthetic tissues for rice and bread wheat. Methods: A meta-analysis of genome-wide transcriptome data on stress-induced changes in expression profiles of antioxidant genes using microarray and next generation sequencing (NGS) experiments from the GEO NCBI database for rice and bread wheat was carried out. Experimental study of expression changes in short (6 h) and prolonged (24 h) cold stress responses for selected AOS genes of bread wheat cultivars Saratovskaya29 and Yanetzkis Probat was conducted using qPCR. Results: The large-scale meta-transcriptome and complementary experimental analysis revealed a summary of fold changes in the AOS gene expression in response to cold and water deficiency for rice and bread wheat.