Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a key enzyme involved in energy metabolism. Recently, GAPDH has been suggested to have extraglycolytic functions in DNA repair, but the underlying mechanism for the GAPDH response to DNA damage remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the tyrosine kinase Src is activated under DNA damage stress and phosphorylates GAPDH at Tyr41. This phosphorylation of GAPDH is essential for its nuclear translocation and DNA repair function. Blocking the nuclear import of GAPDH by suppressing Src signaling or through a GAPDH Tyr41 mutation impairs its response to DNA damage. Nuclear GAPDH is recruited to DNA lesions and associates with DNA polymerase β (Pol β) to function in DNA repair. Nuclear GAPDH promotes Pol β polymerase activity and increases base excision repair (BER) efficiency. Furthermore, GAPDH knockdown dramatically decreases BER efficiency and sensitizes cells to DNA damaging agents. Importantly, the knockdown of GAPDH in colon cancer SW480 cells and xenograft models effectively enhances their sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic drug 5-FU. In summary, our findings provide mechanistic insight into the new function of GAPDH in DNA repair and suggest a potential therapeutic target in chemotherapy.