The paper includes the research results on the changes in the spatial proportions of the development of post-Soviet Russia in several dimensions: east–west, “periphery”- “centre”, rural–urban and resource-processing economies. The analysis showed that there was a concentration of economic activity throughout the country, which was accompanied by its shift from the east and the periphery to the west and to the centre of the country, respectively; the urban system was growing, and there was a concentration of population in large cities. However, the speed of these processes did not meet expectations; a more active dynamic was predicted as a result of market reforms. But despite this, the market and the agglomeration factors appear to be the main determinants of the observed spatial transformations. The generally accepted view that public investment and the resource economy, which were the most important factors of spatial development in the Soviet period, continue to be substantial, has not been confirmed. Federal investment is insignificant for noticeable changes in the spatial proportions, whereas the influence of mining sector appears to be ambiguous and depends on the regional specialization.