The article focuses the impact of factors on the return on equity, as an indicator of the economic efficiency of oil and gas companies in Russia. Practical implementation of the decomposition method is presented; an econometric model based on panel data is built. As a result, recommendations to the Russian oil and gas company for improvement of economic efficiency were provided. Based on the econometric models built on panel data, it was shown that at present the economic efficiency of the industry is determined primarily by the indicator of the operating margin, as the ratio of revenue to profit. The significant influence has the level of operating costs, which depend, first of all, on the technological level of the company’s development. In the context of a rapid decline in the operating costs of global transnational companies, the oil and gas industry faces significant challenges. In addition, the ratios of the tax burden and asset turnover was a significant factor as well.