Elevated glucocorticoid level in the early postnatal period is associated with glucocorticoid therapy prescribed at preterm delivery most often has severe long-lasting neurodevelopmental and behavioural effects. Detailed molecular mechanisms of such programming action of antenatal glucocorticoids on behaviour are still poorly understood. To address this question we studied neurotrophins: Bdnf, Nt-3, Ngf and their receptors: p75ngfr, Sorcs3 expression changes after subcutaneous dexamethasone (DEX) 0.2 mg/kg injection to P2 rat pups. Neurotrophins expression level was studied in the hippocampus (HPC). Disturbances in these brain regions have been implicated in the emergence of multiple psychopathologies. p75ngfr and Sorcs3 expression was studied in the brainstem—region where monoamine neurons are located. Immunohistochemically P75NTR protein level changes after DEX were investigated in the brainstem Locus Coereleus norepinephrine neurons (NE). In the first hours after DEX administration elevation of neurotrophins expression in HPC and decline of receptor’s expression in the NE brainstem neurons were observed. Another critical time point during maturation is adolescence. Impact of elevated glucocorticoid level in the neonatal period and unpredictable stress (CMUS) at the end of adolescence on depressive-like behaviour was studied. Single neonatal DEX injection leads to decrease in depressive-like behaviour, observed in FST, independently from chronic stress. Neonatal DEX administration decreased Ntf3 and SorCS1 expression in the brainstem. Also Bdnf mRNA level in the brainstem of these animals didn’t decrease after FST. CMUS at the end of adolescence changed p75ngfr and SorCS3 expression in the brainstem in the animals that received single neonatal DEX administration.
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