Signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) is a popular method for generating strong signal enhancements in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In SABRE experiments, the source of polarization is provided by the nonthermal spin order of parahydrogen (pH2, the H2 molecule in its nuclear singlet spin state). Polarization formation requires that both pH2 and a substrate molecule bind to an Ir-based complex where polarization transfer occurs. Subsequently, the complex dissociates and free polarized substrate molecules are formed. In this work, we present approaches towards biocompatible SABRE, meaning that several small biomolecules are simultaneously polarized by using the SABRE method in water–ethanol solutions at room temperature. We are able to demonstrate significant 15N-NMR signal enhancements in water–ethanol solutions for biomolecules like nicotinamide, metronidazole, adenosine-5′-monophosphate, and 4-methylimidazole and found that the first three substrates are polarized at the same level as a well-known pyridine. We show that simultaneous polarization of several molecules is indeed feasible when the reactions are carried out at an ultralow field of about 400–500 nT. The achieved enhancements are between 100-fold and 15,000-fold. The resulting 15N polarization (maximal value about 4% achieved for metronidazole and pyridine at 45°C) strongly depends on the sample temperature, pH2 bubbling pressure, and pH2 flow. One more parameter, which is important for optimizing the enhancement, is the solvent pH. Hence, this study presents a step in developing biocompatible SABRE polarization and gives a clue on how such SABRE experiments should be optimized to achieve the highest NMR signal enhancement.
Предметные области OECD FOS+WOS
- 2.05 ТЕХНОЛОГИЯ МАТЕРИАЛОВ
- 1.04 ХИМИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ
- 1.04.DY ХИМИЯ, МУЛЬТИДИСЦИПЛИНАРНАЯ
- 1.04.EI ХИМИЯ, ФИЗИЧЕСКАЯ
- 2.11.XQ СПЕКТРОСКОПИЯ