Previously the single bifacial tools found in different industrial variants of the Altai Middle Paleolithic (Sibiryachikha and Kara-bom) were not considered to be cultural markers that could be used to differentiate the technological/cultural variants, but rather a bright, but situational manifestation of the typological variability, especially in the case of the Sibiryachika assemblages. As a result of recent studies of Chagyrskaya Cave, the key-site of Sibiryachikha, it was found that all the bifaces are made using plano-convex technology. In the Chagyrskaya Cave assemblage all stages of bifacial production have been found: pre-forms, bifacial tools and tools made on the bifacial thinning flakes, accompanied by numerous bifacial thinning flakes and bifacial thinning chips. A preliminary study of the bifaces from the second Sibiryachikha site, Okladnikov Cave evidenced the use of the same plano-convex technology. On the other hand, in the Kara-bom complexes (Kara-Bom, Ust-Karakol-1, Anuy-3), all bifacial tools are made using bi-convex bifacial technology. Thus, the criteria for the technological distinction of bifacial production assume special importance as a cultural marker that allows the differentiation the Altai Middle Paleolithic technological variants. Taking into account the fact that Chagyrskaya Cave and Okladnikov Cave are associated only with Neanderthal remains, it can be assumed that bifacial plano-convexe technology in the Middle Paleolithic of Altai is linked to the appearance and existence of their population in the region.
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