We explored functional roles of two H3K9-specific histone methyltransferases of Drosophila melanogaster, SetDB1 (also known as Eggless) and Su(var)3-9. Using the DamIDapproach,we generated the binding profile for SetDB1 in Drosophila salivary gland chromosomes, and matched it to the profile of Su(var)3-9. Unlike Su(var)3-9, SetDB1 turned out to be an euchromatic protein that is absent from repeated DNA compartments, and is largely restricted to transcription start sites (TSSs) and 5' untranslated regions (5'UTRs) of ubiquitously expressed genes. Significant SetDB1 association is also observed at binding sites for the insulator protein CP190. SetDB1 and H3K9 di- and tri-methylated (me2 and me3)-enriched sites tend to display poor overlap. At the same time, SetDB1 has a clear connection with the distribution of H3K27me3 mark. SetDB1 binds outside the domains possessing this modification, and about half of the borders of H3K27me3 domains are decorated by SetDB1 together with actively transcribed genes. On the basis of poor correlation between the distribution of SetDB1 and H3K9methylationmarks,we speculate that, in somatic cells, SetDB1may contribute to themethylation of a broader set of chromosomal proteins than just H3K9. In addition, SetDB1 can be expected to play a role in the establishment of chromatin functional domains.