The aim of this study was to investigate miRNA profiles of clarified urine supernatant and combined urine vesicle fractions of healthy donors and patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer (PCa). The comparative analysis of miRNA expression was conducted with a custom miRCURY LNA miRNA qPCR panel. Significant combinations of miRNA pairs were selected by the RandomForest-based feature selection algorithm Boruta; the difference of the medians between the groups and a 95% confidence interval was built using the bootstrap approach. The Asymptotic Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test was performed for miRNA combinations to compare different groups of donors. Benjamini-Hochberg correction was used to adjust the statistical significance for multiple comparisons. The most diagnostically significant miRNAs pairs were miR-107-miR-26b.5p and miR-375.3p-miR-26b.5p in the urine supernatant fraction that discriminated the group of healthy patients and PCa patients, as well as miR-31.5p-miR-16.5p, miR-31.5p-miR-200b, miR-31.5p-miR-30e.3p and miR-31.5p-miR-660.5p in the fraction extracellular vesicles that were different between healthy men and benign prostate hyperplasia patients. Such statistical criteria as the occurrence of individual significant miRNA pairs in the total number of comparisons, median ∆C t difference, and confidence interval can be useful tools for determining reliable markers of PCa.