Recent research has found a relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive control mechanisms underlying various experimental tasks. This study explored the interaction between gender and resting-state HRV in brain oscillatory activity during visual recognition of linguistic ambiguity while taking state and trait anxiety scores into account. It is well known that stress or anxiety increases arousal levels, particularly under uncertainty situations. We tasked 50 young Mandarin speakers (26 women; average age 26.00 ± 4.449) with the recognition of linguistic ambiguity in English (foreign) sentences with the purpose of imposing a sense of uncertainty in decision-making. Our results revealed a dependency between resting-state HRV and theta/alpha power in individual women. Low HRV women showed stronger theta/alpha desynchronization compared with their high HRV counterparts, independent of topographic localization. However, low and high HRV men exhibited comparable theta/alpha activity. Trait anxiety scores affected alpha power in the parieto-occipital regions, whereas men with higher scores and women with lower scores showed stronger alpha desynchronization. We posit that stress-provoking situations may impose additional effects on theta/alpha desynchronization in the frontal and temporal regions, a condition in which the interdependency between brain oscillatory activity and resting-state HRV could interact with cognitive control differently in men and women.