Replication protein A contributes to all major pathways of DNA metabolism and is a target for post-translation modifications, including poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation catalyzed by PARP1. Here we demonstrate that the efficiency of RPA poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation strongly depends on the structure of DNA used for PARP1 activation and on the polarity of RPA binding. Moreover, RPA influences PARP1 activity, and this effect also depends on DNA structure: RPA inhibits PAR synthesis catalyzed by PARP1 in the presence of ssDNA and stimulates it in the presence of a DNA duplex, in particular that containing a nick or a gap. Using fluorescently labeled proteins, we showed their direct interaction and characterized it quantitatively. RPA can accelerate the replacement of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated PARP1 molecules bound to DNA by the unmodified ones. Thus, our data allow us to suggest that the balance between the affinities of PARP1 and RPA for DNA and the interaction of these proteins with each other are the cornerstone of the modulating effect of RPA on PARP1 activity. This effect might contribute to the regulation of PARP1 activity in various DNA processing mechanisms including DNA replication and repair pathways, where both PARP1 and RPA participate.