MicroRNAs (miRs, miRNAs) are small molecules of 18-22 nucleotides that serve as important regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. One of the mechanisms through which miRNAs regulate gene expression involves the interaction of their "seed" sequences primarily with 3'-end and more rarely with 5'-end, of mRNA transcribed from target genes. Numerous studies over the past decade have been devoted to quantitative and qualitative assessment of miRNAs expression and have shown remarkable changes in miRNA expression profiles in various diseases. Thus, profiling of miRNA expression can be an important tool for diagnostics and treatment of disease. However, less attention has been paid towards understanding the underlying reasons for changes in miRNA expression, especially in cancer cells. The purpose of this review is to analyze and systematize current data that explains reasons for changes in the expression of miRNAs. The review will cover both transcriptional (changes in gene expression and promoter hypermethylation) and post-transcriptional (changes in miRNA processing) mechanisms of regulation of miRNA expression, as well as effects of endogenous (hormones, cytokines) and exogenous (xenobiotics) compounds on the miRNA expression. The review will summarize the complex multilevel regulation of miRNA expression, in relation to cell type, physiological state of the body and various external factors.
Предметные области OECD FOS+WOS
- 1.06 БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ
- 3.01.QA МЕДИЦИНА, ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКАЯ И ЭКСПЕРИМЕНТАЛЬНАЯ