This review considers recent studies of regulatory capacities in the first years of life. Children's self-regulation has been the subject of research within different fields. Different terms are used in different areas to describe self-regulatory constructs, such as effortful control and executive function, the Russian terminology also varies considerably. The main methods used for assessing children's regulatory capacities are parent questionnaires, psychophysiological measures and behavioral tasks; each has a number of strengths and weaknesses. Research has shown that regulatory capacities in childhood predict important life outcomes such as conscience, social competence, empathy, physical and mental health, affluence and low aggressiveness in later life. Low self-regulation is related to higher levels of behavioral and emotional problems in adulthood as well as substance dependence and criminal offending outcomes.