Microvesicles were isolated from blood plasma and total blood of healthy females and breast cancer patients by filtration and ultracentrifugation. According to flow cytometry, different subpopulations of exosomes were represented in blood of healthy donors and cancer patients at different levels with median fluorescence intensity (MFI) values in both groups arranged in the following order: CD24/СD9 > СD9/СD81 > CD9/CD63 = CD24/CD63. Concentration of exosomes in blood plasma of healthy females estimated by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) did not exceed (3.71 ± 1.15) × 107 particles/mL of blood and did not differ from that in plasma of breast cancer patients, which averaged (3.99 ± 1.03) × 107 particles/mL of blood. Concentration of total exosomes in blood (including exosomes from plasma and blood cell surface-bound exosomes) did not depend on the presence/absence of a tumor; the values were (7.66 ± 0.7) × 107 particles/mL of healthy blood and (9.4 ± 1.24) × 107 particles/mL of blood from cancer patients. Comparative analysis of exosomes using 2-D electrophoresis with subsequent analysis of 2-D proteomic maps revealed proteins missing in blood or differentially expressed in healthy females and breast cancer women. The data presented provide the possibility for identification of exosomal proteomic markers and isolation of tumor-specific exosomes, which contributes to the development of breast cancer diagnostics.