The possibility of using arctic low-sulfur diesel fuel for the production of syngas suitable for solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFSs) in a single stage via the prereforming reaction over Ni-MgO structured catalysts based on a highly porous cellular foam material (HPCFM) made of nickel is demonstrated. Catalysts with mass compositions (wt %) 10.7NiO–10MgO/HPCFM and 20NiO–10MgO/HPCFM are prepared, and their properties in the prereforming of arctic diesel fuel at 550°C are studied. The microstructure of the coating of these catalysts is studied via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) before and after the reaction. The resistance of these prereforming catalysts to carbonization is revealed to be the key factor influencing their stability under operation. The kinetic parameters of this reaction are determined. The obtained results could be helpful in creating power generation units based on fuel cells operating on arctic diesel fuel under the conditions of the Far North.