DNA repair capacity in cells of naked mole rat (Hgl), a species known for its longevity and resistance to cancer, is still poorly characterized. Here, using the whole-cell extracts (WCEs) of Hgl, mouse and human cells, we studied the interrelation between DNA synthesis on the substrates of base excision repair and the activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) responsible for the transfer of the ADP-ribose moieties onto different targets. The level of PAR synthesis was more than ten-fold higher in human WCE as compared to rodent WCEs, while the efficiency of DNA synthesis was comparable. Under conditions of PAR synthesis, the efficiency of DNA synthesis was only slightly enhanced in all extracts and in mouse WCEs unusual products of the primer elongation were detected. The results obtained with WCEs, recombinant proteins and recently found ability of PARPs to attach the ADP-ribose moieties to DNA allowed us to attribute these products to primer mono(ADPribosyl) ation (MARylation) at the 5'-terminal phosphate by PARP3 during the DNA synthesis. PARP1/PARP2 can then transfer the ADP-ribose moieties onto initial ADP-ribose. Our results suggest that MARylation/PARylation of DNA in the extracts depends on the ratios between PARPs and can be controlled by DNA-binding proteins.