Pressure–volume–temperature relations have been measured to 29 GPa and 1673 K for CaCO3 aragonite using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with a multianvil apparatus at the ‘SPring-8’ facility. A least-squares fit of the room-temperature compression data to the Vinet-Rydberg equation of state (EOS) yielded KT 0 = 65.7 ± 0.8 GPa and KT' = 5.1 ± 0.1, with fixed V0 = 227.11 Å3. Further analysis of the high-temperature compression data led to the temperature derivative of the bulk modulus (∂KT/∂T)P = −0.016 ± 0.001 GPa/K and zero-pressure thermal expansion α = a0 + a1T with a0 = 4.98 (22) × 10−5 K−1 and a1 = 2.81(38) × 10−8 K−2. The Mie-Gruneisen-Debye approach revealed the Gruneisen parameter γ0 = 1.39 at a fixed Debye temperature θ0 = 516 K and the parameter q = 1. Analysis of axial compressibility and thermal expansion indicates that the c-axis is two times more compressible than the b-axis and four times more compressible than the a-axis, whereas zero-pressure thermal expansion of the a-axis (a0 a = 2.6 × 10−5 K−1 and a1 a = 2.3 × 10−8 K−2) is weaker than that of the b-axis axis (a0 b = 6.3 × 10−5 K−1 and a1 b = 0.1 × 10−8 K−2) and c-axis axis (a0 c = 5.2 × 10−5 K−1 and a1 c = 9.5 × 10−8 K−2). A full set of thermodynamic parameters (including heat capacity, enthalpy and free energy) for aragonite and updated equations of state for magnesite and siderite was obtained using the Kunc-Einstein approach. The new EOS parameters were used for thermodynamic calculations for aragonite decarbonation reactions. The present thermal EOS provides accurate calculations of aragonite density to deep mantle. Decarbonation of subducting oceanic crust containing 2 wt% aragonite would result in a 0.5% density reduction at 30 GPa and 1273 K. Aragonite becomes denser than magnesite at pressures about 16 GPa along the 1500 K isotherm and at 9 GPa along the 298 K isotherm.