The optical properties and composition of thermal silicon oxide thin films processed in a hydrogen electron cyclotron resonance plasma have been studied by ellipsometry, quantum-chemical modeling, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. It has been found that the plasma processing of the films leads to their oxygen depletion and the formation of nonstoichiometric oxide SiOx < 2. The parameter x of the obtained SiOx films has been determined by comparing the experimental spectral dependence of the refractive index with the dependence obtained theoretically using the ab initio calculation. It is shown that an increase in the time of processing of thermal dioxide SiO2 in a hydrogen plasma leads to an increase in the refractive index of the film, as well as in the degree of its oxygen depletion. The dependence of the parameter x of the investigated films on the hydrogen plasma processing time is plotted.