Mixing characteristics and coherent structures populating the near-nozzle area of a rotating-pipe jet at the Reynolds number of 5300 were studied by Large-eddy simulation (LES). The swirl rate, defined as the ratio of the tangential velocity of the inner pipe wall to the bulk axial velocity, varied from 0 to 1, corresponding to a weak-to-moderate swirl intensity, insufficient to induce reverse flow near the nozzle. The visualization shows that for the non-swirling jet the near-wall streaky structures generated in the pipe interact with the shear layer, evolving into hairpin-like structures that become tilted at low rotation rates. For higher swirl, they cannot be recognized as they are destroyed at the nozzle exit. No large-scale coherent structures akin to Kelvin–Helmholtz vortical rings in the ‘top-hat’ jets are identifiable close to the nozzle. Using the single and joint probability density functions of velocity and passive scalar (temperature) fields we quantify the events responsible for the intensive entrainment at various swirl numbers. The isosurface of the temperature field indicates the meandering and precessing motion of the rotating jet core at the axial distance of 6D downstream, where D is the diameter of the pipe. The Fourier analysis with respect to the azimuthal angle and time reveals an interplay between the co- and counter-rotating modes. These findings explain the previously detected but not fully clarified phenomenon of the weakly counter-rotating jet core at low swirl rates.
|Журнал||International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow|
|Состояние||Опубликовано - 1 фев 2017|