Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is a causative agent of a severe neurological disease. There are three main TBEV subtypes: the European (TBEV-Eu), Far Eastern (TBEV-FE), and Siberian (TBEV-Sib). Currently, three lineages within TBEV-Sib have been recorded. In this study, the genetic and biological characteristics of a new original strain, TBEV-2871, isolated in the Novosibirsk province of Western Siberia, Russia were investigated. The strain has low neuroinvasiveness in mice. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that TBEV-2871 belongs to TBEV-Sib, but does not cluster with any of the TBEV-Sib lineages. The TBEV-2871 strain has 88–89% nucleotide sequence identity with the other TBEV-Sib strains, 84–86% nucleotide sequence identity with the TBEV-FE and TBEV-Eu subtypes and is genetically close to the subtype division border. The TBEV-2871 polyprotein sequence includes 43 unique amino acid substitutions, 30 of which are recorded at positions that are conserved among all TBEV subtypes. Strain TBEV-2871 and two similar but not identical isolates found in Kemerovo province, Western Siberia are separated into a new lineage tentatively named Obskaya after the name of Ob riber, in the vicinity of which the TBEV-2871 was first found. A molecular evolution investigation demonstrated that within TBEV-Sib, the Obskaya lineage likely separated 1535 years ago, which is even earlier than the Baltic lineage.