In this study, we screened a large library of (+)-camphor and (−)-borneol derivatives to assess their filovirus entry inhibition activities using pseudotype systems. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed several compounds exhibiting submicromolar IC50 values. These compounds were evaluated for their effect against natural Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus. Compound 3b (As-358) exhibited the good antiviral potency (IC50 = 3.7 μM, SI = 118) against Marburg virus, while the hydrochloride salt of this compound 3b·HCl had a strong inhibitory effect against Ebola virus (IC50 = 9.1 μM, SI = 31) and good in vivo safety (LD50 > 1000 mg/kg). The results of molecular docking and in vitro mutagenesis analyses suggest that the synthesized compounds bind to the active binding site of EBOV glycoprotein similar to the known inhibitor toremifene.