Disorders of hematopoiesis caused by the action of various factors (hemotoxic substances, drugs, cytotoxic drugs, radiation) lead to a deviation from the norm and the development of the diseases varying in complexity. The restoration of hematopoiesis under extreme conditions is vital, and the search for the drugs stimulating hematopoiesis is an extremely urgent task. The most interesting agents are low molecular weight compounds that can stimulate hematopoiesis in case of its disorders. The presented literature review discusses various factors leading to hematopoietic disorders, and drugs that have shown sufficient effectiveness in eliminating these disorders, in particular with cytostatic therapy and the treatment of hemolytic pathologies. The review can be useful in the search for agents that stimulate hematopoiesis, and is addressed not only to medical and chemical professionals, but also to a wide range of readers.