The purpose of this interdisciplinary research is to analyze the available data on the domestic market of bakery products, assess the factors resulting in increase of the bread consumption, and opportunities of improvement of technological properties of flour and dough through the realization of the genetic potential of bread wheat varieties, taking into account environmental factors. In modern conditions, in the bakery products market of such negative tendencies are observed as decrease in volumes of bread production and deterioration of quality of the products. Among the various factors influencing the formation of these trends, one can point out the poor quality of flour, accompanied by deterioration in the rheological properties of the dough. In the practice, the correction of flour of inadequate quality is increasingly being made through the introduction of chemical improvers, which contributes to improving the technological process. At the same time there is a loss of traditional taste and a change in the consumer characteristics of bread, which leads to the refusal or reduction of consumption of bread by a part of the population of our country. This review summarizes data on the dynamics of average per capita consumption of bread and bakery products and the change in the ratio of these indicators to the consumption of meat products. An alternative approach to solving the problems of flour quality can be attributed to the possibilities of natural improvement of its initial characteristics through the realization of the genetic potential of bread wheat varieties, taking into account environmental factors that ultimately influence the formation of technological properties of flour and dough. In recent years, data have been accumulated that have made significant progress in understanding the complex interaction of various genetic systems and biochemical processes underlying the formation of grain properties that affect the quantity and quality of the flour. Integral components in this complex interaction are the environmental factors, under the influence of which the physiological and biochemical processes are modulated, and the mode of realization of genetic information is changing. The article summarizes the data on the influence of various environmental factors on the technological properties of flour and dough and describes the possibilities of modern IT-support of the selection process, facilitating the evaluation of quantitative characteristics and taking into account the relationship between genotype, phenotype and environmental conditions. Advances in the identification of genetic factors affecting the technological properties of flour and dough are discussed and sources of useful variants of these genes are considered. The importance of the use of winter bread wheat for increasing the share of production of high-quality nutritive grains is emphasized, as well as the results of the search for donors of useful genes among the old varieties of spring bread wheat. Among the latter, varieties with a high content of raw gluten and high elasticity of the dough have been identified. In conclusion, the ways of applying data on the influence of genetic and environmental factors on the formation of technological properties of flour and dough in a selection experiment are discussed, and the importance of obtaining varieties with genetically determined high strength of flour as a source of natural improver of weak flour is replaced in place of widely used chemical additives.
|Состояние||Опубликовано - 1 янв. 2017|