An analysis of the mineral-geochemical composition and structure of the Holocene-Pleistocene bottom sediments was performed on Lake Polevskoye, a small lake in the northern Lake Onega area in Russian Karelia, which is considered representative to describe the Late Weichselian Onega Ice Lake sediments. The analysis was accomplished using modern analytical methods, including scanning electron microscopy and ICP-MS, which allowed us to interpret their genesis in a new light. It is assumed that the distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in the bottom sediments of the recent Lake Onega and in the sediments of Onega Ice Lake will improve our understanding of the history of sedimentogenesis. It is apparent in the distribution of REE, their composition and data on the geochemical and mineral composition of the Holocene bottom sediments of Lake Onega and Lake Polevskoye (varved clays) that in their composition of terrigenous matter the material introduced from the north-western part of the catchment area is mainly composed of Archaean and Early Proterozoic crystalline complexes. However, the values of several indicator ratios of elements in the lower part of the of varved clays with shungite interlayers indicate the presence of mixing of clastic material from two sources of different geochemical origin: the north-western part of the catchment area (source of shungite rocks) and the south-eastern part of the catchment area (Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks of the Russian Platform).