A promising new approach to the treatment of viral infections and genetic diseases associated with damaged or foreign nucleic acids in the body is gene therapy, i.e., the use of antisense oligonucleotides, ribozymes, deoxyribozymes, siRNA, plasmid DNA, etc. (therapeutic nucleic acids). Selective recognition of target nucleic acids by these compounds based on highly specific complementary interaction can minimize negative side effects, which occur with currently used low molecular weight drugs. To apply a new generation of therapeutic agents in medical practice, it is necessary to solve the problem of their delivery into cells. Silicon-containing nanoparticles are considered as promising carriers for this purpose due to their biocompatibility, low toxicity, ability to biodegradation and excretion from the body, as well as the simplicity of the synthesis and modification. Silicon-containing nanoparticles are divided into two broad categories: solid (nonporous) and mesoporous silicon nanoparticles (MSN). This review gives a brief overview of the creation of mesoporous, multilayer, and other silicon-based nanoparticles. The publications concerning solid silicon-organic nanoparticles capable of binding and delivering nucleic acids into cells are discussed in more detail with emphasis on methods for their synthesis. The review covers publications over the past 15 years, which describe the classical Stöber method, the microemulsion method, modification of commercial silica nanoparticles, and other strategies.