Sugar beet is used not only in the sugar production, but also in a wide range of industries including the production of bioethanol as a source of renewable energy, extraction of pectin and production of molasses. The red beetroot has attracted much attention as health-promoting and disease-preventing functional food. The negative effects of environmental stresses, including abiotic and biotic ones, significantly decrease the cash crop sugar beet productivity. In this paper, we outline the mechanisms of sugar beet response to biotic and abiotic stresses at the levels of physiological change, the genes' functions, transcription and translation. Regarding the physiological changes, most research has been carried out on salt and drought stress. The functions of genes from sugar beet in response to salt, cold and heavy metal stresses were mainly investigated by transgenic technologies. At the transcriptional level, the transcriptome analysis of sugar beet in response to salt, cold and biotic stresses were conducted by RNA-Seq or SSH methods. At the translational level, more than 800 differentially expressed proteins in response to salt, K+/Na+ ratio, iron deficiency and resupply and heavy metal (zinc) stress were identified by quantitative proteomics techniques. Understanding how sugar beet respond and tolerate biotic and abiotic stresses is important for boosting sugar beet productivity under these challenging conditions. In order to minimize the negative impact of these stresses, studying how the sugar beet has evolved stress coping mechanisms will provide new insights and lead to novel strategies for improving the breeding of stress-resistant sugar beet and other crops.