The main aim of this article is to provide a state-of-the-art review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilization in heterogeneous catalysis. MRI is capable to provide very useful information about both living and nonliving objects in a noninvasive way. The studies of an internal heterogeneous reactor structure by MRI help to understand the mass transport and chemical processes inside the working catalytic reactor that can significantly improve its efficiency. However, one of the serious disadvantages of MRI is low sensitivity, and this obstacle dramatically limits possible MRI application. Fortunately, there are hyperpolarization methods that eliminate this problem. Parahydrogen-induced polarization approach, for instance, can increase the nuclear magnetic resonance signal intensity by four to five orders of magnitude; moreover, the obtained polarization can be stored in long-lived spin states and then transferred into an observable signal in MRI. An in-depth account of the studies on both thermal and hyperpolarized MRI for the investigation of heterogeneous catalytic processes is provided in this review as part of the special issue emphasizing the research performed to date in Russia/USSR.