Analysing the genesis of Quaternary sediments is important for understanding the glaciation history and development of marine sediments in the northern part of Western Siberia. The problem is relevant since there is no consistent concept of the Quaternary sediment genesis in the north of Western Siberia. The formation of sediments is associated with marine, glacial and interglacial sedimentation conditions. The research objective is to identify the persistent features characterising the conditions of sedimentation and relief formation using the Nadym River basin as an example. The best method for studying this problem is a comprehensive analysis of the lithological, chronostratigraphic, petrographic and geomorphological studies of the Quaternary sediment upper strata. This study provides data from the analysis of the basic characteristics of quartz grains at the site. The rounding and morphology of the quartz grains provide evidence of possible glacial processing of some of the site strata. A petrographic study of selected boulder samples was performed. Some of them, by the shape and presence of striation, can be attributed to ice basins. The first use of a detailed digital elevation model applied to the study area made it possible to identify specific relief forms that could very likely be created during glaciations. Based on the analysis, we propose to consider the vast lake alluvial plains in the Nadym River basin as periglacial regions. This idea lays the lithological framework for understanding the reasons for the formation of the modern landscape structure. The materials and descriptions provided are of interest to researchers of Quaternary sediments, topography, vegetation and soil cover, particularly researchers engaged in revising the history of the natural environment development in the north of Western Siberia.