Luminescent properties of self-assembled Ge(Si)/SOI nanoislands embedded in two-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) slabs with and without L3 cavities were studied with PhC period a varied between 350 and 600 nm. For small periods (a ≤ 450 nm), the nanoisland luminescence, which spans over the wavelength range from 1.2 to 1.6 μm, overlaps with the PhC bandgap resulting in a coupling with the localized modes of an L3 cavity. It is shown that for larger periods (a > 450 nm), nanoisland emission couples to the radiative modes above the bandgap located in the vicinity of the -point of the photonic crystal Brillouin zone and is characterized by the low group velocity. In this case, a significant (up to 35-fold) increase in the PL intensity was observed in a number of PhCs without a cavity. From a technological point of view, the latter result makes such types of photonic crystal structures particularly promising for the realization of Si-based light emitters operating in the telecommunication wavelength range because, firstly, their manufacture does not require a precise cavity formation and, secondly, they provide a much larger area for the radiating region, as compared with PhC cavities.