Recent anthropological and archaeological studies have established the significance of the Altai Mountains prehistoric sites, which illustrate complex peopling events. In this paper, we use the chaîne opératoire techno-economic approach to describe the reduction sequences from layers 5 and 3 of Ust’-Kanskaya cave, Gorny Altai, Russia. The Levallois concept is attested in both layers by the presence of cores, flakes, points and blades. However, the majority of the products do not correspond to the cores, which implies a shift at some point of the reduction sequence. Shorter reduction sequences that do not demand such a high degree of predetermination have also been identified. The two layers display similar technological features and can both be associated with the Levalloiso-Mousterian variant of the Altai Middle Palaeolithic.