New paleoseismological and archaeoseismological data from the western Issyk-Kul basin of Kyrgyzstan (northern Tien Shan) provide new insights on active fault in the actively-deforming, basement-involved thrust system of Central Asia. Newly discovered fault scarps follow south-and north-dipping thrust faults which delineate the Kyrgyz and Kungey ranges bordering the Issyk-Kul basin. Motion on these faults generated earthquakes with magnitudes 6.2–7.6 and MSK-64 shaking intensities VIII-XI. Deformation observed in the zone of the Toguz-Bulak fault results from two Holocene earthquakes and another event that occurred about 8000 yr BP. Two more events, at 13,000 and 3000 yr BP, deformed the northeastern periphery of the Kyzyl-Ompul Uplift. Archaeoseismological research in the Northern Sary-Bulun settlement in the western periphery of the Boz-Barmak Uplift, revealed traces of another earthquake of MSK-64 shaking intensity I ≥ VIII dating back to the 12th Century. The obtained data correlates well with results of previous paleoseismological and archeoseismological studies. They show that in the northern Tien Shan there were clusters of strong earthquakes with ages of 14–13, 8, 4–3 ka ago and in the 11–12th centuries AD divided by periods of 4–5 ka. We infer that coseismic slip on these faults may have formed a tectonic dam at the edge of the basin through growth of the Boz-Barmak Uplift, and this dam ultimately deflected the Chu River into its modern channel which bypasses the lake. Lacustrine sediments in the northeastern periclinal segment of the Boz-Barmak Uplift bear signatures of soft-sediment deformation structures (seismites) corresponding to seven M ≥ 5–5.5 (I ≥ VI-VII) earthquakes timed at about 20,000 yr BP.