The paper reviews and integrates geological, geochronological, geochemical and isotope data from 21 intra-oceanic arcs (IOA) of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO), which have been identified in the Central Asian Orogenic belt, the world largest accretionary orogeny. The data We discuss structural position of intra-oceanic arc volcanic rocks in association with back-arc terranes and accretionary complexes, major periods of intra-oceanic arc magmatism and related juvenile crustal growth, lithologies of island-arc terranes, geochemical features and typical ranges of Nd isotope values of volcanic rocks. Four groups of IOAs have been recognized: Neoproterozoic – early Cambrian, early Paleozoic, Middle Paleozoic and late Paleozoic. The Neoproterozoic – early Cambrian or Siberian Group includes eleven intra-oceanic arcs of eastern and western Tuva-Sayan (southern Siberia, Russia), northern and southwestern Mongolia and Russian Altai. The Early Paleozoic or Kazakhstan Group includes Selety-Urumbai, Bozshakol-Chingiz and Baydaulet-Aqastau arc terranes of the Kazakh Orocline. The Middle Paleozoic or Southern Group includes six arc terranes in the Tienshan orogen, Chinese Altai, East-Kazakhstan-West Junggar and southern Mongoia. Only one Late Paleozoic intra-oceanic arc has been reliably identified in the CAOB: Bogda in the Chinese Tienshan, probably due to PAO shrinking and termination. The lithologies of the modern and fossil arcs are similar, although the fossil arcs contain more calc-alkaline varieties suggesting either their more evolved character or different conditions of magma generation. Of special importance is identification of back-arc basins in old accretionary orogens, because boninites may be absent in both modern and fossil IOAs. The three typical scenarios of back-arc formation - active margin rifting, intra-oceanic arc rifting and fore-arc rifting were reconstructed in fossil intra-oceanic arcs. Some arcs might be tectonically eroded and/or directly subducted into the deep mantle. Therefore, the structural and compositional records of fossil intra-oceanic arcs in intracontinental orogens allow us to make only minimal estimations of their geometric length, life span, and crust thickness.