Food-borne trematodiases represent major neglected parasitic diseases. Trematodes of the family Opisthorchiidae including Opisthorchis felineus, Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are ranked eight on the global list of the 24 most prevalent food-borne parasites. Chronic O. felineus infection symptoms include precancerous lesions with the potential for malignancy. In recent decades, liver flukes of the family Opisthorchiidae have been extensively scientifically explored, however despite this the molecular mechanisms of O. felineus pathogenicity and its carcinogenic potential have not been studied. Opisthorchis felineus glutathione-dependent prostaglandin synthase (GST σ) is the major component of the excretory–secretory product of this liver fluke. We hypothesised that the activity of this enzyme is involved in the infection pathogenesis, including the formation of precancerous lesions. To test this hypothesis and to gain insights into the mechanisms of precancerous lesion formation, we (i) investigated whether excretory parasitic GST σ retains its enzymatic activity, (ii) tested resveratrol (RSV) as a possible inhibitor of this enzyme, and (iii) assessed biliary neoplasia and oxidative DNA damage as well as the expression of neoplasia and fibrogenesis marker genes after prolonged administration of RSV in a hamster model. RSV was found to inhibit GST σ enzymatic activity in a dose-dependent manner (R = 0.85, P < 0.001; half-maximal effective dose (ED50) = 48.6 μM). Prolonged administration of RSV significantly suppressed high-grade biliary neoplasia (P = 0.008), attenuated upregulation of hyperplasia and fibrogenesis-related genes (Tgfb, α-SMA and CK7), and decreased the elevated oxidative DNA damage. Taking into account that RSV can influence a wide range of pathways, further research is needed to confirm the role of GST σ in O. felineus pathogenicity. Nevertheless, the chemopreventive effect of RSV targeting biliary neoplasia formation might be useful for improving the outcomes in infected populations and represents a compelling rationale for RSV testing in combination chemotherapy of opisthorchiasis.